I hear first peoples talking about doing things “in a good way”. I am increasingly understanding the depth of this expression. The fact is, we have known for a long time that we have not been doing things “in a good way”. Knowing this in the core of our souls while actively denying this through our collective actions spurred by individualist materialism engrained in us for the course of industrial development, leaves us in a state of crisis. This societal crisis is exemplified by multiple and compounding crises in mental health, addictions, poverty, violence, war, refugees, homelessness and climate change. Not to mention the raving lunatic at the helm of the Titanic down south. As a society and culture, thanks to a century of “progress” driving us full speed ahead into these multiple train wrecks, eyes wide open, here we are, hitting rock bottom. This is a grand opportunity for our collective growth, to find beauty in the irony of our distorted realities such as watching our forests burn down while we BBQ meats to celebrate 150 years of colonization. We have the chance to do something absolutely beautiful to turn this all around, to do things in the best way that we know how, right now. We need to reach back in time for the solutions that our ancestors already knew and bring them into the modern age, and leave a sustainable legacy for future generations. We need to do this now. It will be radical, and people will resist, but our grandchildren and their grandchildren will be grateful that we shifted the tide before it was too late. If we are truly to embody reconciliation, or decolonization, and the principles of one planet living, we are to prioritize our First Peoples wishes first and foremost. Giving them space to be the true stewards of the lands, the culture, the social practice, as they always did before colonization. They are the leaders of tomorrow and it is time that we give them room at the helm of the ship. It is time for us to bow out and take our place in the wings, the supporting cast, the backstage crew. We will be at the ready to make their dreams a reality, but we must make their dreams the ones that count.
Human Trafficking exhibit opened in Chinatown
“We took a taxi for a long distance… He took me into a room that had a bed, table and a chair. I asked him again: ‘Where is Edna?’ Then he said: ‘Don’t you know that I bought you from her?’ It was as if someone took a knife and stuck it in my heart…I stayed in that room for a year. It was a brothel. I saw many teens and Liberian women working there. I worked day and night…When you are in this situation, you are traumatized. All the time they are threatening you.” – Ruth from Sierra Leone
For some, the memory of that betrayal evokes a deep bitterness and sorrow, and others have a difficult time recovering from that betrayal. Still others overcome the betrayal, though they never forget it, in a way that makes them stronger and more resilient.
On Tuesday, November 17th, co-working space TheDock was transformed into a veritable gallery, displaying haunting, high-quality photographs of human trafficking survivors. Betrayed. Portraits of Strength, displayed at the Dock until January 5th, tell stories hailing from Sierra Leone, Bangladesh, and Mexico.
Photographer Tony Hoare tells their stories through images, text, music, and film. He interviewed and photographed hundreds of people around the world over the past five years. Tony describes his experience of the interview process:
“Everyone here that you look at… and whose story that you read… each one of them has a common theme. That’s why I asked each one of them: “That’s really courageous of you to come forward, why did you do it?” People talked about the fact that it was one of the most significant things that they ever went through in their life and they really wanted to tell that story in the small hope that somebody else would see it, and recognize that it was something that was going on in their lives… they have a lot of courage… they are remarkable people.”
(photo: Tony Hoare)
Tony Hoare: Human Trafficking around the Globe
The human trafficking survivors and their stories hooked Hoare while he was in Bangladesh, and transformed the successful outdoor adventure sports photographer to a humanitarian advocate, canvassing the globe to collect stories of human trafficking survival and resilience. He volunteered with organizations that were working to combat human trafficking around the world.
In Bangladesh, he worked with Young Power in Social Action, which assists people who have been trafficked for their labour; he met children who had been trafficked in order to harvest their organs; he went to Sierra Leone to interview young men who had been child soldiers. He spent several months in Mexico, with Casa Alianza, an organization that helps children living on the street.
Everywhere, he encountered women, children, and men, who were survivors of sexual exploitation. For most, the stories evoke sadness for the circumstances of the survivors and the hardships they went through. Although Hoare felt compassion, more importantly, he also felt admiration when he photographed them. For Hoare, they are stories of inspiration, revealing the marvel of human resilience.
Each person he spoke to found the strength and courage within themselves in order to escape very dire circumstances. This exhibit gives you a glimpse into the lives of people who have been tricked into forfeiting their freedom. He encourages the viewer to read their stories, and ask yourself: “are similar things happening here?”
Tony Hoare (Photo: Bill Beatty)
Domestic workers and Sexual Exploitation in BC
Hoare confirms that in Canada, there is a robust human trafficking industry, primarily focused on sexual exploitation and domestic workers. For that reason, Hoare’s photographs were commissioned by the BC Ministry of Justice, the Office to Combat Human Trafficking, because we have a significant problem with trafficking right here in British Columbia.
“Why did they ask me to show pictures from Bangladesh, Sierra Leone, and Mexico?” asks Hoare, “because the stories are really similar to the way that it happens here. People will always find ways to exploit vulnerable people. That’s the common thread. By screening some of these stories, and looking for the links to how it might happen here, there are definite parallels.”
The exhibit was first shown in collaboration with the Learning Centre in the downtown eastside of Vancouver. Hoare had invited a group of 25 community members from the downtown eastside to come in and curate the exhibit. They chose which images should be included. They were asked, “how relevant are these portraits to your lives?” The portraits themselves were deemed irrelevant, but once the stories were added, they saw how similar they were to their own experiences and lived realities.
Much like the downtown eastside experience, Dr. Kathleen Manion, professor at Royal Roads University in the School of Humanitarian Studies, invites the viewer to find ways to make a personal connection with the portraits. Manion is an advocate of changing the narrative, away from the tragedy and victimhood that we often see in the mainstream media, towards one of resilience and survival found in Hoare’s portraits. Rather than a one-dimensional criminal activity, seeing trafficking survivors in a broader context allows the viewer to make the connection to their own lives.
Kathleen Manion (Photo: Bill Beatty)
Kathleen Manion’s academic studies have focused on the issue of human trafficking on the global scale, and in particular, its impact on children. It is estimated that there are between 800,000 and 1.2 million children trafficked worldwide each year. There are a number of international instruments designed to suppress the global trafficking of people, which Manion describes as “a traumatic, exploitative practice”.
The Palermo Protocol was ratified in 2000, by a broad coalition of countries, to define trafficking as “having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation.” It was agreed that trafficking occurs without the consent of the individual. Broader agreements were ratified to protect children under 18.
Manion reminds us that the international policies must not mask the personal stories of the people in these portraits, which connect us to their humanity:
“They are stories of people who have gone through terrible situations, and have been betrayed by the people that they cared about, they have been betrayed by the systems that should be there to support them, at the local, national, and international levels.”
She asks the viewer to take some time to think about the stories and how they relate to you, and how does that create a connection between all of us, and what might we be able to change in order to see a different world?
Those who braved the storm on November 17th to attend the opening at theDock were not only rewarded with a rich discussion on human trafficking led by Tony Hoare, and Kathleen Manion, but also with delectable pastries by La Tana, a local, organic Italian bakery housed at the entrance to Fan Tan Alley in Chinatown, just downstairs from theDock.
This exhibition is part of an ongoing project. Tony Hoare is interested in gathering more stories from different countries, especially stories within Canada. His challenge is to find survivors of human trafficking willing to share their stories. They can contact Tony Hoare confidentially at firstname.lastname@example.org
About Tony Hoare: Over the last two years, through his work as a humanitarian photographer, Hoare has gathered stories of people who have been victims of trafficking and who, with strength and courage, have gone on to create better lives for themselves. Hoare works with locally grown organizations that support people victimized by others. The stories are raw and heartfelt. The stories are from Bangladesh, Sierra Leone and Mexico. Hoare’s project is ongoing with future stories that will come from Europe, the Philippines and Canada. For the Canadian stories, Hoare is seeking volunteers who have experienced human trafficking. Your story can be told in your name or using a pseudonym to remain anonymous. If you have been betrayed, Tony would like to hear from you. He can be reached at email@example.com http://www.tonyhoare.com/
theDock-Centre for Social Impact is a coworking space for community builders, social entrepreneurs, creatives and engaged people. The coworking space is curated to stimulate informal collaboration, hosting events and making connections, with the aim of increasing the impact of its members through more efficient connections. The growing list of members shows the diversity of individuals and organisations who moor and mingle at the Dock. http://www.thedockvictoria.com/
Within the past eight months, over 52,000 unaccompanied minors have arrived at the Mexican-U.S. border seeking refuge in the United States, from Latin America’s “Northern Triangle”: Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras. This is known as the Surge, as numbers have increased exponentially since 2011, overwhelming U.S. immigration, and leaving thousands of children in holding in makeshift detention centres. These increasingly high numbers show no signs of waning, and projections of new arrivals continue to rise. Those lobbying for stricter immigration policies are finding justifications for their arguments, while human rights activists are calling it a humanitarian crisis – pleading for the youngsters to be admitted to the U.S. as refugees under the non-refoulement policy (a binding policy prohibiting the return of a refugee to persecution, obliging the State to grant refugee status).
Immigration policy aside, what is happening in the countries of origin that is making these children want to leave house and home and everything they’ve ever known behind and take a dangerous journey northwards to an unknown destiny?
“If a house is burning, people will jump out the window,” says Michelle Brané, director at the Women’s Refugee Commission.
Governments and NGOs in the region have identified the need for research on the reasons for this mass exodus and seek better ways to ensure the protection, wellbeing, and safety of these displaced children. Some of the reasons have been recorded in several studies undertaken at the U.S. Border.
These studies show that violence is the most cited cause for those fleeing Central America. In the past five years, a weak State has allowed strong international drug cartels and other organized crime (weapons trafficking, human trafficking) to flourish. Reports from the Northern Triangle show that murder rates are skyrocketing, with estimates of civilian casualty rates far surpassing those at the height of the Iraq war, with El Salvador being the most violent of the three, and where the majority of the migrants are from (UNHCR). This impacts the everyday lives of Central American children.
Increasingly, more residential neighbourhoods and schools are targeted by street gangs to force children into recruitment and to terrorize their families. Police forces in El Salvador and Honduras are reported to deal with the problem with yet more violence, “cleansing” neighbourhoods of gang members, often the same youths that were forcibly recruited in the first place. In Guatemala, reports show that the police is under the influence of organized crime. Corruption and failure of governance are named as reasons for their inability to control the gangs. These same gangs were formed by those pushed out of Colombia due to the War on Drugs, and from the streets of Los Angeles in the 1990s, deported from the USA due to their illegal status and criminal activities. They often turned to these activities as a last resort, considering they had no status in the U.S., feared the police, and only had their own networks to turn to for survival. Now they have a strong, powerful international trafficking network, and are terrorizing more and more children and families of Central America daily, to gain ground as drug lords, and selling the drugs back to the United States. An old immigration problem becomes a new immigration problem, and the demand for illicit drugs is on the rise. Drugs these children are forced to sell, traffic, smuggle and take themselves, for they otherwise risk losing their lives or their loved ones.
En masse, Central American children are fleeing to the Promised Land, some to reunite with relatives in the United States; some, whose families have sent them on the treacherous journey alone, see it as the only way to keep them safe. The cost alone is a severe burden on the families, with “coyotes” charging upwards of $5,000 to bring a child to the U.S. Not to mention the threat of the gangs now befalls the family, as the child refused recruitment and chose to flee instead. Reports indicate that the coyotes themselves are also abusive:
While not all children described mistreatment by guides, many of those who did revealed being locked in rat-infested warehouses sometimes for days on end. Some reported physical abuse by the guides. One described being beaten with a 2 x 4 wooden beam. Another child told of how women and girls were kept in a separate room and could be heard screaming while being raped. Children further described the guides’ failure to provide consistent access to food and water, especially in the desert…Once children got to the desert bordering the U.S., many were abandoned by guides and left without food or water. Some wandered for days until Border Patrol found them. Others describe making it to the Rio Grande River and watching others drown as they struggled against the current. Source
Reports show that some of these coyotes are actually engaged in child trafficking: promising families that their children will have the opportunity for better lives in the U.S. while they are really smuggling these children to another country (the U.S. or other Latin American countries) to force them into drug trafficking, child labour, and sex trafficking (TIP). Traffickers play a large and profitable role in moving many children across the globe (CWLA).
Additionally, the journey itself proves to expose them to more of the same violence from whence they came: the cartels in Mexico are known for extortion, violence, rape, kidnapping and trafficking the children during the journey. They kidnap the migrants and hold them for ransom, forcing them to work for the cartel. If they make it to the U.S. border, the migrants are detained as criminals, and continue to be faced with an uncertain future: Will the U.S. accept them as refugees or send them back home? Needless to say, there is great risk involved in the migration of unaccompanied minors from Central America to the United States, yet, staying at home apparently offers even less hope.
To capture the reasons for this hopelessness, UNHCR (UN Refugee Agency) interviewed over 400 unaccompanied minors waiting for U.S. immigration to decide their fates. They published a report named Children on the Run: Unaccompanied Children from EL Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico and the Need for International Protection. Kids in Need of Defense (KIND) published the report The Time is Now: Understanding and Addressing the Protection of Immigrant Children Who Come Alone to the United States based on interviews with 126 children from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. A third report, Forced From Home: The Lost Boys and Girls of Central America, by the Women’s Refugee Commission, details the results of interviews with 150 children, officials from Homeland Security, and Immigration at the U.S. – Mexican border.
The results of these reports are similar. Although the responses from the interviews are complex, they show a general trend that a dramatic rise in violence in the everyday lives of these children spurred on their desire to escape their homes, lives, families, friends, and schools. The UNHCR reports states: “no less than 58% of the 404 children interviewed were forcibly displaced because they suffered or faced harms that indicated a potential or actual need for international protection” from violence by organized crime as well as violence at home. The report’s results show that a majority must qualify for refugee status:
CHILDREN FROM EACH COUNTRY WITH INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION NEEDS:
El Salvador: 72%; Guatemala: 38%; Honduras: 57%; Mexico: 64%
- Between Ages 12-17
- Entered the U.S. during or after October 2011
- Held at some point in U.S. federal custody
These youngsters shared stories of fleeing increasing domestic violence, abuse, neglect, maltreatment, and abandonment by their families, compounded by dire poverty and the increasing threats, intimidation, extortion, armed conflict, kidnapping and human trafficking, gang violence, brutal forced recruitment, rape, and persecution by organized criminal gangs. In El Salvador, gangs are reputed to murder those who cannot pay la renta. Those children who have lost a caregiver by disappearance, death, or separation are the most vulnerable to increased poverty, abuse, neglect, sexual violence, exploitation, and death. Children do not tend to report abuse to the authorities because they do not believe that they will protect them (KIND). No space is safe for them, even the schools are used as gang recruitment centres. Just like other migrants, these children and families do not want to flee their homes, or their countries, if they can avoid it. Just as in Syria or Colombia, they will displace internally before leaving their countries to journey to an unknown fate. A gender dimension reveals girls are most at risk:
“…many of the displaced girls interviewed reported the fear of rape and gender-based violence as major motivating factors. They described how gangs and drug traffickers in Central America are increasingly recruiting girls to smuggle and sell drugs in their home countries, using gang rape as a means of forcing them into compliance. Gangs also use the threat of rape as a tactic to gain money through extortion and kidnapping. If a girl is impregnated, interviewees explained, the gang member responsible will leave her to raise her baby alone, then come back when the child is old enough to be recruited into the gang. Just as gangs are targeting younger boys for recruitment and violent attacks, they are targeting younger girls, some as young as nine years old, for rape and sexual assault” (UNHCR).
The increase in numbers of unaccompanied minors fleeing the Northern Triangle and entering the U.S. indicates a crisis. The background to this crisis includes the civil wars of the 1980s, as this established an increased circulation of firearms and normalized violence in society. In times of armed conflict, children are the most vulnerable to violence and abuse in and outside of the home. The ensuing perpetual and extreme poverty are additional pressures that have influenced an increase in domestic and societal violence, impacting the daily lives of Central American children even further.
The UNHCR report places an emphasis on recommendations concerning the international protection and liberties of displaced children in the context of immigration policies, and only briefly suggests improvements on the home front:
“Address Root Causes: Undertake measures both regionally and nationally to address the root causes of flight of these displaced children, in an effort to reduce – if not eliminate – the factors that lead to their forced displacement. Engage the Commission on Security for Central America of the Central American Integration System to address the issues of children displaced due to violence and insecurity in further support of State efforts concerning these issues”(UNHCR).
KIND has a stronger recommendation:
“Such prevalent violence against children calls for a strong national child protection response, but in many countries in the region, this is lacking due to limited resources” (KIND).
What are possible solutions to help protect these children from violence in their home countries?
What strategies can be undertaken to prevent them from being recruited by the gangs?
How can we improve their situations so that they do not have to flee, as in all reality, it is only the lucky few that actually have the chance to flee.
Watch a Video about the crisis in Central America.
‘…the role of social sensitivity of the philanthropic and the social organisations committed to humanitarian values is very crucial’ (Iyer and Manick 2000:90).
Widows in Rural Punjab
After several months of interviews in rural Punjab concerning farmers who committed suicide as a result of the economic crisis in agriculture, the widows appear to be left in the weakest position in society. It all begins with the arranged marriage: the young bride must leave her natal village to live in her husband’s village. She rarely goes to her natal village to visit her own family. She has no friends in her new village, which leaves her completely isolated after her husband’s death. On top of that, often women do not leave the house, as for her to be alone in public is seen as shameful. After marriage, women are expected to be housewives: to do all the household chores, take care of the children and the husband. In addition, receiving an education higher than the tenth class is seen as shameful, as the woman’s place is in the home. Unmarried girls are not allowed to leave their village to receive higher education or skilled training, which leaves them little choice but to become either a housewife or a labourer. These ‘social facts’ or cultural expectations leave widows in an impossible predicament. After her husband has committed suicide, the widow’s fate seems to take one of six turns:
1) She returns to her natal village, leaving her children behind with her in-laws. This is, if you ask any mother, a heart-wrenching experience.
2) Her family arranges a new husband for her. She barely had time to grieve, yet now her in-laws will be held accountable for her late husband’s debts, although she receives no rights to the inheritance despite the high price of dowry that her family had paid.
3) She (often against her will) remarries the brother of deceased, who is left with the debts of the first brother, and often proceeds to commit suicide as well.
4) She remains with the in-laws (sometimes acting as their slave, doing all the housework: cooking, cleaning, washing, feeding and milking the buffalo etc).
5) She is left on her own, with the debts and the children to take care of.
6) She commits suicide.
Emotionally, widows are relentlessly broken. Heartbroken from her husband’s death, the widow sees daily reminders of him in the eyes of their children. Socially, she must wear the stigma of her husband’s suicide. Besides the daily struggle to make ends meet, she is burdened by the debts he left her, and receives pressure from the arhtiya or bank to make payments, multiplying the public shame of being indebted, and elevating her financial worries. Sometimes she had been physically abused by her late husband, as he had turned to alcohol and/or drug abuse as an escape from debts, which contributed to the psychosis in which he took his own life. From this experience, her soul is left as battered and bruised as her body, causing lack of self-esteem and self-confidence.
Financially, she is often dependent on either in-laws, siblings or the State. The widow must sell all of her personal property (ie. Jewellery, which are often heirlooms passed on for generations in the family) in order to make loan repayments. If this is impossible or insufficient, she must sometimes resort to becoming a labourer even though this may be a lower caste, where she is paid slave wages and is physically and sexually abused by employers and other labourers.
The widow is often uneducated, illiterate, allowing for little or no political leverage or social power due to her ignorance of her civil rights, or of the many official rules and regulations surrounding these rights. Commonly, despite applying several times, she has not received the widow’s pension that she is entitled to from the government. The eligibility criteria are quite inconsequential and restrictive. For example, the widow must not have more than two acres of land in her title, her age must be under thirty-five, but there is no clause considering the amount of her debts, or if she is incapable of working after age thirty-five. She will only receive pensions for two dependents (whereby boys are favoured), despite the fact that most rural owmen have more children to support. The result is that her children must stop attending school and start earning. Apparently, politics play a role, since it depends on her voting behaviour or caste whether the sarpanch will favour her and arrange her pensions or not.
Contrary to the assumptions often made by the men in her surroundings, the widows I spoke with would prefer to be independent, as they do not like to rely on others. Like any mother, they want to give her children a good future, for example, by giving them an education. To me, these wishes do not seem unreasonable, yet to the widows I spoke with, they often seem like far-fetched and unattainable dreams.
 ‘The constant pressures by lending agencies to repay the loan emerged as an important precipitant social factor for committing suicide by the deceased. The pressures were so intense, that apart from the suicide victims, the family members also felt humiliated’ (Iyer and Manick 2000: 43).
1998 Widows versus daughters or widows as daughters? Propety, land, and economic security in rural India. Modern Asian studies vol:32 iss:1.
Iyer, Gopal and Manick, Mehar Singh
2000 Indebtedness, Impoverishment and Suicides in Rural Punjab. Delhi: Indian Publishers Distributors.
2005 Whole Villages up For Sale in Punjab. Chandigarh: The Tribune.